Codul Muncii din Romania

TITLUL XII

JURISDICTIA MUNCII

 

Capitolul 1. Dispozitii generale

 

        Art. 281. (Scopul jurisdictiei muncii)

Jurisdictia muncii are ca obiect solutionarea conflictelor de munca cu privire la incheierea, executarea, modificarea, suspendarea si incetarea contractelor individuale sau, dupa caz, colective de munca prevazute de prezentul cod, precum si a cererilor privind raporturile juridice dintre partenerii sociali, stabilite potrivit prezentului cod.

       Art. 282. (Partile conflictului de munca)

Pot fi parti in conflictele de munca:

a) salariatii, precum si orice alta persoana titulara a unui drept sau a unei obligatii in temeiul prezentului cod, al altor legi sau al contractelor colective de munca;

b) angajatorii - persoane fizice si/sau persoane juridice -, agentii de munca temporara, utilizatorii, precum si orice alta persoana care beneficiaza de o munca desfasurata in conditiile prezentului cod;

c) sindicatele si patronatele;

d) alte persoane juridice sau fizice care au aceasta vocatie in temeiul legilor speciale sau al Codului de procedura civila.

        Art. 283. (Termene pentru formularea cererilor)

(1) Cererile in vederea solutionarii unui conflict de munca pot fi formulate:

a) in termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data in care a fost comunicata decizia unilaterala a angajatorului referitoare la incheierea, executarea, modificarea, suspendarea sau incetarea contractului individual de munca;

b) in termen de 30 de zile calendaristice de la data in care s-a comunicat decizia de sanctionare disciplinara;

c) in termen de 3 ani de la data nasterii dreptului la actiune, in situatia in care obiectul conflictului individual de munca consta in plata unor drepturi salariale neacordate sau a unor despagubiri catre salariat, precum si in cazul raspunderii patrimoniale a salariatilor fata de angajator;

d) pe toata durata existentei contractului, in cazul in care se solicita constatarea nulitatii unui contract individual sau colectiv de munca ori a unor clauze ale acestuia;

e) in termen de 6 luni de la data nasterii dreptului la actiune, in cazul neexecutarii contractului colectiv de munca ori a unor clauze ale acestuia.

(2) In toate situatiile, altele decat cele prevazute la alin. (1), termenul este de 3 ani de la data nasterii dreptului.

 

Capitolul 2. Competenta materiala si teritoriala

 

        Art. 284. (Instanta competenta)

(1) Judecarea conflictelor de munca este de competenta instantelor stabilite conform Codului de procedura civila.

(2) Cererile referitoare la cauzele prevazute la alin. (1) se adreseaza instantei competente in a carei circumscriptie reclamantul isi are domiciliul sau resedinta ori, dupa caz, sediul.

        Nota: Potrivit art. 2 pct. 1 lit. c) Cod procedura civila, cu modificarile ulterioare:”Tribunalul judeca, in prima instanta:(…) conflictele de munca, cu exceptia celor date prin lege in competenta altor instante.”

     

Capitolul 3. Reguli speciale de procedura

 

        Art. 285. (Timbrajul)

Cauzele prevazute la art. 281 sunt scutite de taxa judiciara de timbru si de timbrul judiciar.

        Nota: A se vedea si dispozitiile art. 15 lit. a) din Legea nr. 146/1997 privind taxele judiciare de timbru, cu modificarile si completarile ulterioare.

        Art. 286. (Regimul de solutionare a conflictelor de munca)

(1) Cererile referitoare la solutionarea conflictelor de munca se judeca in regim de urgenta.

        Nota: A se vedea si infra, nr. 14, art. 74 alin. (1) din Legea nr. 168/1999

(2) Termenele de judecata nu pot fi mai mari de 15 zile.

(3) Procedura de citare a partilor se considera legal indeplinita daca se realizeaza cu cel putin 24 de ore inainte de termenul de judecata.

        Art. 287. (Sarcina probei)

Sarcina probei in conflictele de munca revine angajatorului, acesta fiind obligat sa depuna dovezile in apararea sa pana la prima zi de infatisare.

        Art. 288. (Administrarea probelor)

Administrarea probelor se face cu respectarea regimului de urgenta, instanta fiind in drept sa decada din beneficiul probei admise partea care intarzie in mod nejustificat administrarea acesteia.

        Art. 289. (Caracterul hotararilor)

Hotararile pronuntate in fond sunt definitive si executorii de drept.

        Art. 290. (Reglementare speciala)

Procedura de solutionare a conflictelor de munca se reglementeaza prin lege speciala.

        Nota: A se vedea Legea nr. 168/1999 privind solutionarea conflictelor de munca, cu modificarile si completarile ulterioare, infra, nr. 14.

        Art. 291. (Dreptul procedural comun)

Dispozitiile prezentului titlu se completeaza cu prevederile Codului de procedura civila.

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